News Releases, Media Advisories

For Immediate Release:                                                Contact:  Kelly Huff
August 27, 1999                                                                                  Ron Harris
                                                                                                                  Sharon Snyder
                                                                                                                  Ian Stirton

 

COMPLIANCE CASES MADE PUBLIC

WASHINGTON -- The Federal Election Commission has recently made public its final action on 44 matters previously under review (MURs). This release contains only summary information. Closed files should be thoroughly read for details, including the FEC’s legal analysis of the case. (See footnote at the end of this release.) Closed MUR files are available in the Public Records Office.

1. MUR 4357 [See MUR 4802]

RESPONDENTS: (a) Bob Barr for Congress ’94, Charles C. Black, treasurer (GA)

(b) Thomas J. Barnette (GA)

(c) William L. Camp (GA)

(d) Robert W. Gates (GA)

(e) Ronald S. Holley (GA)

(f) Carin B. Jannuzzo (GA)

COMPLAINANT: FEC Initiated (Audit)

SUBJECT: Excessive contributions; failure to itemize contributions; failure to promptly refund excessive cash contributions; understating financial activity; failure to disclose contributor information

DISPOSITION: (a) Conciliation Agreement: $ 12,055 civil penalty* [Joint Conciliation]

Some of the violations for accepting excessive contributions, failing to itemize contributions, failing to disclose information on the occupation and name of employer of contributors, and the understatement of receipts and disbursements on the 1993 Year End Report are not subject to a civil penalty pursuant to 28 U.S.C. 2462 (the five year statute of limitations for enforcement actions).

(b-f) Reason to believe, but took no further action*

[re: excessive contributions]

2. MUR 4378

RESPONDENTS: National Republican Senatorial Committee, Stan Huckaby, treasurer (DC)

COMPLAINANT: Honorable Max Baucus and Friends of Max Baucus ’96 (MT)

SUBJECT: Excessive coordinated expenditures, failure to accurately report expenditures, use of non-federal accounts for federal election

DISPOSITION: Reason to believe, failed to find probable cause to believe*

3. MUR 4675

RESPONDENT: (a) Pete Wilson for President Committee, Inc., Renee Croce, treasurer (CA)

    1. The Fuller Company (CA)
    2. Newcourt Credit Group Inc. (formerly d/b/a AT&T Credit Corporation) (Canada)

COMPLAINANT: FEC Initiated (Audit)

SUBJECT: Excessive contribution; corporate contribution

DISPOSITION: (a-c) Failed to find reason to believe*

4. MUR 4682

RESPONDENTS: (a) Andrew B. Huang (CT)

(b) Dr. Frank S. Chuang (CT)

(c) Ho-Tien Shu (CT)

(d) Joe JuGer (CT)

(e) Mark Lin (CT)

(f) Sam Gejdenson Re-Election Committee, Patricia T. Lagrega, treasurer (CT)

(g) Cathy S. Huang (CT) (h) Steve Hsu (TX)

(i) Shu-Ying Hsu (TX) (j) Monica Pickus ((TX)

(k) Tsing Pie Liu (CT) (l) Chia-Hui Lin (TX)

(m) Steven W. Rodriguez (FL) (n) Katherine Lim (TX)

(o) Shaw Yaw Chang (TX) (p) Charles O’H Grimes, II (TX)

COMPLAINANTS: Connecticut Republican State Central Committee, Chris DePino, Chairman (CT)

SUBJECT: Foreign national contributions; contributions in the names of others; disclaimer; excessive contributions; receipt and reporting of prohibited contributions

DISPOSITION: (a-e) Reason to believe, but took no further action*

[re: disclaimer]

Sent admonishment letters.

    1. Rejected recommendation to find reason to believe*

[re: excessive contributions]

(f) No reason to believe*

[re: foreign national contributions]

Rejected recommendation to find reason to believe*

[re: receipt and reporting of prohibited contributions]

(a, g-p) No reason to believe*

[re: foreign national contributions; contributions in the names of others]

5. MUR 4752

RESPONDENTS: Democratic Party of New Mexico, Thomas Atcitty, treasurer (NM)

COMPLAINANTS: Republican Party of New Mexico, John Dendahl, Chairman (NM)

SUBJECT: Failure to file disclosure report timely

DISPOSITION: Conciliation Agreement: $ 1,500 civil penalty*

 

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6. MUR 4758

RESPONDENTS: (a) C. Boyden Gray (DC)

(b) Jeanne Fletcher (DC)

(c) New Republican Majority Fund, J. Stanley Huckaby,

treasurer (VA)

(d) Senator Trent Lott (MS)

COMPLAINANT: Richard E. Welsh (VA)

SUBJECT: Excessive contributions; exceeding the annual $25,000 contribution limit; contributions in the name of another

DISPOSITION: (a) Reason to believe, but took no further action*

[re: excessive contributions; exceeding the annual $25,000 contribution limit (1994 and 1998)]

No reason to believe*

[re: excessive contribution to a PAC]

(a-b) No reason to believe*

[re: contributions in the name of another]

(c-d) No reason to believe*

[re: excessive contributions]

7. MUR 4802 [See MUR 4357]

RESPONDENTS: Bob Barr - Congress (1996 Committee), Charles C. Black,

treasurer (GA)

COMPLAINANT: FEC Initiated (Audit)

SUBJECT: Excessive contributions; failure to itemize contributions; failure to file 48-hour reports

DISPOSITION: Conciliation Agreement: $ 16,000 civil penalty* [Joint Conciliation]

Respondents will implement accounting procedures that are designed to identify and detect reporting errors and substantive problems; require appropriate personnel responsible for complying with the Act and Commission regulations to attend Commission-sponsored training program or similar program; prepare an internal training manual to assist appropriate personnel in understanding laws and regulations concerning federal elections.

8. MUR 4811

RESPONDENTS: John Spratt for Congress Committee, Bernard Neal Ackerman, treasurer (SC)

COMPLAINANTS: South Carolina Republican Party, Trey Walker, Executive Director

SUBJECT: Disclaimers

DISPOSITION: Conciliation Agreement: $ 2,000 civil penalty*

9. MUR 4837

RESPONDENTS: (a) Boyd for Congress, Jennifer R. Cannon, treasurer (FL)

(b) Honorable F. Allen Boyd, Jr. (FL)

(c) David P. Windham (FL)

COMPLAINANT: Suzanne Stein (FL)

SUBJECT: Disclaimer

DISPOSITION: (a) Conciliation Agreement: $ 500 civil penalty*

(b-c) No reason to believe*

[re: any provision of the Act]

10. MUR 4863

RESPONDENTS: (a) Sean Hannity (NY)

(b) WABC-AM Radio, Inc. (NY)

(c) ABC, Inc. (f/k/a Capital Cities/ABC, Inc.) (NY)

(d) The Walt Disney Company, Inc. (CA)

COMPLAINANT: Daniel L. Grant (NJ)

SUBJECT: Corporate contributions; excessive contributions; disclaimer; failure to register and report

DISPOSITION: (a-d) No reason to believe* [re: any provision of the Act]

11. MUR 4886

RESPONDENTS: (a) Tenet Healthcare Corporation (CA)

(b) Tenet Healthcare Corporation Political Action Committee, Susan Limon, treasurer (CA)

COMPLAINANT: FEC Initiated (RAD)

SUBJECT: Corporate contributions; failure to forward contributions in timely manner; failure to provide contributor information

DISPOSITION: (a) Conciliation Agreement: $ 9,000 civil penalty*

[re: corporate contributions]

Respondent will not undertake or otherwise engage in fundraising activity described in this agreement on behalf of any political committee.

(b) Conciliation Agreement: $ 4,000 civil penalty*

[re: failure to forward contributions timely; failure to provide contributor information]

12. MUR 4900

RESPONDENTS: Pepsi-Cola Bottlers Association - PAC, Allen Fleischer, treasurer (TX)

COMPLAINANT: FEC Initiated (RAD)

SUBJECT: Failure to file disclosure report timely

DISPOSITION: Reason to believe, but took no further action*

13. MUR 4905

RESPONDENTS: Society of Independent Gasoline Marketers of America Political Action Committee, Thomas L. Robinson, treasurer (VA)

COMPLAINANT: FEC Initiated (RAD)

SUBJECT: Failure to file disclosure report timely

DISPOSITION: Reason to believe, but took no further action*

Sent admonishment letter.

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The Enforcement Priority System (EPS) rates all incoming cases against objective criteria to determine whether they warrant use of the Commission’s limited resources.

Cases dismissed under EPS fall into two categories: low-rated cases and stale cases. Low rated cases are those that do not warrant use of the Commission’s resources to pursue because of their lower significance relative to other pending matters. Stale cases are those that initially received a higher rating but have remained unassigned for a significant period due to a lack of staff resources for effective investigation. Effective enforcement relies upon the timely pursuit of complaints and referrals to ensure compliance with the law. Investigations concerning activity more remote in time usually require a greater commitment of resources, primarily due to the fact that the evidence of such activity becomes more difficult to develop as it ages. The utility of commencing an investigation declines as these cases age, until they reach a point when activation of a case would not be an efficient use of the Commission’s resources. As cases reach this point, they are recommended for dismissal.

Dismissed - Low Rated

1. MUR 4792

RESPONDENTS: Gary S. Mueller for Congress, Michael Grady, treasurer (IL)

COMPLAINANTS: Don Millar, partner, The Conover Millar Group (DC)

SUBJECT: Failure to report outstanding debts

2. MUR 4793

RESPONDENTS: (a) Friends of Weiner, Christopher Bellitti, treasurer (NY)

(b) Metropolitan NY Towing & Auto Body Association, Norman Teitler, Executive Director (NY)

(c) Norman Siegel (NY)

(d) Advanced Auto Body and Nick Romano, owner (NY)

(e) Advanced Towing & Recovery, Inc. and Richard Turek,

owner (NY)

(f) 15th Street Auto Body, Inc. and Joe Amato, owner (NY)

(g) Boscano Collision & Towing and Frank Spallone, owner (NY)

(h) Buckner Bx Collision Experts, Inc. and Nicholas Madio,

owner (NY)

(i) City Wide Towing Corp. and owner (NY)

(j) Digital Towing and Recovery and owner (NY)

(k) Five Js Automative Ltd. and owner (NY)

(l) Fleet Auto Service and Russell Cascardo, owner (NY)

(m) Lucky 7 Towing, Inc. and owner (NY)

(n) Mike’s Towing Company and Michael Mazzio, owner (NY)

(o) Narrows Body Craftsman, Inc. and owner (NY)

(p) Universal Towing Inc. and Anthony Aquilino, owner (NY)

(q) WABC Towing Corp. and Joe Winfield, owner (NY)

COMPLAINANTS: Citizen Action of New York City, Richard Schrader, Director (NY)

SUBJECT: Corporate contributions

 

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3. MUR 4794

RESPONDENTS: Deschamps for Congress, Peggy Beltrone, treasurer (MT)

COMPLAINANTS: Montana Republican Party, Sue Aleksich-Akey, Chairman (MT)

SUBJECT: Failure to file 48-hour reports; failure to accurately report contributions; failure to continuously report loan

4. MUR 4799

RESPONDENTS: (a) Honorable Richard H. Baker (LA)

(b) Baker for Congress Committee, Alvin J. Ourso, Jr., treasurer (LA)

(c) Paul Sawyer, (LA)

(d) Timothy Carpenter (VA)

(e) Suzette Crocker (LA)

(f) Caroline Owen (LA)

(g) Jessica Guttry (NC)

(h) Susan B. Hoffman (LA)

COMPLAINANT: Cynthia Picou (LA)

SUBJECT: Excessive contributions (in the form of staff advances)

5. MUR 4800

RESPONDENTS: (a) Honorable Nick Smith (MI)

(b) Nick Smith for Congress Committee, F. Robert Lally,

treasurer (MI)

(c) National Republican Congressional Committee, Donna M. Anderson, treasurer (DC)

(d) Jackson County Republican Committee and treasurer (MI)

(e) Michigan Automotive Compressor, Inc. (MI)

(f) Honorable Sue W. Kelly (NY)

[62 Individuals named as Respondents by the Complainant]

COMPLAINANT: John Anthony LaPietra (MI)

SUBJECT: Excessive contributions; corporate contributions; failure to report contributions from political action committees; foreign national contributions

6. MUR 4813

RESPONDENTS: (a) Mr. Fay W. Boozman, III (AR)

(b) Boozman for US Senate Campaign Committee, Inc., Joe Hewgley, treasurer (AR)

(c) Republican Party of Arkansas, Harry "Pat" Dodge, treasurer (AR)

(d) Baxter County Republican Committee, Pat Cohee, treasurer (AR)

(e) Bella Vista Republican Women’s Club and treasurer (AR)

(f) Benton County Republican Committee, Margaret Otte, treasurer (AR)

(g) Benton County Republican Women, Kathleen Butler, treasurer (AR)

(h) Boone County Republican Committee and treasurer (AR)

(i) Boone County Republican Women, Janie Bass, treasurer (AR)

(j) Diamondhead Republican Women and treasurer (AR)

(k) Faulkner County Republican Women’s Club, Eva Hall, treasurer (AR)

(l) Garland County Republican Committee, James M. Hart, treasurer (AR)

(m) Greater Little Rock Republican Women and treasurer (AR)

(n) Hempstead County Federation of Republican Women and treasurer (AR)

(o) Hot Springs Village Republican Women and treasurer (AR)

(p) Jefferson County Republican Organization, Ann Fowler, treasurer (AR)

(q) Jefferson County Republican Women’s Club, Arline Dickey, treasurer (AR)

(r) Johnson County Republican Women’s Club and treasurer (AR)

(s) Montgomery County Republican Committee, Lucille Phillips, treasurer (AR)

(t) Northwest Arkansas Republican Women, Mary Kay Sullivan, treasurer (AR)

(u) Poinsett County Republican Women, Glenda Anderson, treasurer (AR)

(v) Polk County Republican Committee, Jack Barnett, treasurer (AR)

(w) Saline Republican Committee, Charles Mazander, treasurer (AR)

(x) Saline County Republican Women, Betty English, treasurer (AR)

(y) Searcy County Republican Women’s Club and treasurer (AR)

(z) Sharp County Republican Committee, Ruth Klingle, treasurer (AR)

(aa) Siloam Springs Republican Women and treasurer (AR)

(bb) Twin Lakes Federation of Republican Women , Virginia Misiora, treasurer (AR)

(cc) Washington County Republican Committee, John Kendall, treasurer (AR)

(dd) Washington County Republican Women, Margaret Taylor, treasurer (AR)

(ee) White County Republican Committee, Zella Holden, treasurer (AR)

COMPLAINANTS: Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee, Paul Johnson, former Executive Director (DC)

SUBJECT: Excessive contributions

7. MUR 4816

RESPONDENTS: (a) Ken Calvert for Congress, Varis C. Smith, treasurer (CA)

(b) Cook Barela for Congress Committee, Gary Carpolino,

treasurer (CA)

COMPLAINANT: Sarkis Joseph Khoury (CA)

SUBJECT: Alleges collusion by respondent committees against his campaign

8. MUR 4819

RESPONDENTS: (a) Honorable Christopher S. Bond (MO)

(b) Missourians for Kit Bond, Patricia "Pat" Secrest, treasurer (MO)

(c) Sheriff Dick Anderson (MO)

(d) The Platte County Sheriff Department (MO)

COMPLAINANTS: Missouri State Democratic Committee, Joseph Carmichael,

Chairman (MO)

SUBJECT: Failure to report contributions

9. MUR 4821

RESPONDENTS: (a) Honorable Rick Lazio (NY)

(b) Lazio for Congress, Anthony J. Piccirillo, treasurer (NY)

[188 individual respondents and a partnership]

COMPLAINANTS: Kenneth J. Herman, State Chairman Ethics Committee, The Independence Party of New York (NY)

SUBJECT: Excessive contributions

 

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10. MUR 4823

RESPONDENTS: (a) Honorable Newt Gingrich (GA)

(b) Friends of Newt Gingrich, Briggs A. Goggans, treasurer (GA)

(c) Monday Morning Political Action Committee, Trudy M. Barksdale, treasurer (VA)

(d) GOPAC Incorporated, Anthony T. Moonis, treasurer (DC)

COMPLAINANT: Gary Pelphrey (GA)

SUBJECT: Failure to provide contributor information (occupation and name of employer)

11. MUR 4824

RESPONDENTS: (a) Mike Taylor (NC)

(b) Mike Taylor for Congress, Len Brafford, treasurer (NC)

COMPLAINANTS: North Carolina Republican Party, Lee Currie, Executive Director (NC)

SUBJECT: Failure to properly itemize disbursements; failure to report contribution; failure to report disbursements

12. MUR 4829

RESPONDENTS: (a) Jim Lawing (KS)

(b) Jim Lawing for US Representative, D. J. Scanlon, treasurer (KS)

COMPLAINANTS: National Republican Congressional Committee, Ted Maness, III, Executive Director (DC)

SUBJECT: Failure to file a Statement of Candidacy and Statement of Organization; failure to report contributions and expenditures

13. MUR 4833

RESPONDENTS: (a) Mark Emery Udall (CO)

(b) Mark Udall for Congress, James Martin, treasurer (CO)

(c) Sierra Club (CO)

(d) Sierra Club Political Action Committee, Daniel Weiss,

treasurer (CA)

(e) Brian Mohr (CO)

(f) Maggie Fox (CO)

COMPLAINANTS: Coalition of Republican Environmental Advocates, Italia Federici, President (CO)

SUBJECT: Corporate contribution; excessive contribution; failure to report contribution

14. MUR 4835

RESPONDENTS: (a) Michelle A. McManus (MI)

(b) Michelle McManus for Congress, Jerry L. Stephan, treasurer (MI)

COMPLAINANTS: Michigan Democratic State Central Committee, Mark Brewer,

Chair (MI)

SUBJECT: Failure to include clear statement of federal law on solicitation regarding collection and reporting of contributor information

15. MUR 4836

RESPONDENTS: (a) Honorable Donald Stenberg (NE)

(b) Don Stenberg for Senate Committee, Charles V. Sederstrom, Jr., treasurer (NE)

(c) David Vopnford, Sr. (NE)

(d) Barbara L. Vopnford (NE)

(e) Leif Vopnford (NE)

(f) Kenneth Vopnford (NE)

(g) Lynn Vopnford (NE)

(h) Chris Vopnford (NE)

(i) John Brouilette (NE)

(j) Kathie Brouilette (NE)

(k) David Samson (NE)

COMPLAINANTS: Nebraska Democrats, Anne Boyle, State Chair (NE)

SUBJECT: Contributions in the names of others; excessive contributions; contributions by minor

16. MUR 4846

RESPONDENTS: Sherman for Congress, David L. Gould, treasurer (CA)

COMPLAINANTS: Randy Hoffman for Congress, Todd R. Slosek, Campaign

Manager (CA)

SUBJECT: Failure to properly report interest owed to candidate on candidate loans

17. MUR 4848

RESPONDENTS: (a) Columbia County Democratic Committee, William F. Kosnick, treasurer (NY)

(b) Jean Bordewich for Congress, Paul G. Weiner, treasurer (NY)

COMPLAINANTS: Martin Tuczinski, Chair, Columbia County Republican Committee (NY)

SUBJECT: Excessive contribution; failure to register and report

18. MUR 4849

RESPONDENTS: (a) Benjamin Houston Odom (OK)

(b) Ben Odom for Congress, Kara Ludlum, treasurer (OK)

(c) Media Strategies and Research, Inc. (CO)

COMPLAINANTS: Republican State Committee of Oklahoma, Quineta Wylie,

Chairman (OK)

SUBJECT: Failure to report expenditures or debts; corporate contributions

19. MUR 4854

RESPONDENTS: (a) Dick Collins (NY)

(b) Friends of Dick Collins, Patrick J. Henry, treasurer (NY)

COMPLAINANT: William Paroli, Sr. (NY)

SUBJECT: Failure to file disclosure reports

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20. MUR 4862

RESPONDENTS: (a) Friends of Don Chairez for Congress, Cynthia C. White,

treasurer (NV)

(b) Gary Vause (NV)

(c) Monday Morning Political Action Committee, Trudy M. Barksdale, treasurer (VA)

(d) NFIB Safe Trust PAC, Fred Holladay, treasurer (DC)

(e) Lia A. Roberts (NV)

(f) Ernest Becker, Jr. (NV)

(g) Virginia Richardson (NV)

(h) Ralph Engelstad (NV)

(i) Ramon A. DeSage (NV)

(j) Marc Schorr (NV)

(k) William McBeth (NV)

(l) Robert Baldwin (NV)

(m) Paul Lowden (NV)

(n) Committee to Elect Barbara Cegavske and treasurer (NV)

(o) Committee to Elect Sandra Tiffany and treasurer (NV)

(p) Micki Johnson Campaign Account, Carol A. Corbett, treasurer (NV)

(q) Building Our Bases (BOBS) PAC, Stuart W. Thayer, treasurer (LA)

(r) Henderson Police Officers’ Association PAF, Les Beckman, treasurer (NV)

(s) Ady Nasser (NV)

(t) Scott Hodges (TN)

(u) Darlene Ensign (NV)

COMPLAINANT: John E. DeLap, III (NV)

SUBJECT: Excessive contributions, failure to report disbursements, corporate contribution; receipt of contributions from unregistered organizations

21. MUR 4864

RESPONDENTS: (a) Honorable Christopher S. Bond (MO)

(b) Missourians for Kit Bond, Patricia "Pat" Secrest, treasurer (MO)

(c) MSE, Inc. (MT)

(d) Donald Peoples, CEO of MSE, Inc. (MT)

COMPLAINANT: John Isaacson (MT)

SUBJECT: Use of taxpayer funds in connection with federal election; corporate contribution/contributions in the names of others; alleged connection between contributions to Senator Bond and funding of MSE, Inc. projects

22. MUR 4870

RESPONDENT: Christian Coalition (VA)

COMPLAINANT: Morton C. Paulson (MD)

SUBJECT: Failure to disclose information about organization

 

 

 

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23. MUR 4874

RESPONDENTS: (a) The Trenton Times (NJ)

(b) Rush Holt for Congress, Edmund W. Stiles, treasurer (NJ)

COMPLAINANT: George E. Borchers (NJ)

SUBJECT: Failure to provide "proportional" coverage of Reform Party candidate; excessive contribution

24. MUR 4878

RESPONDENTS: West Virginia Republican State Executive Committee, Kent Strange Hall, treasurer (WV)

COMPLAINANT: Sally Anne Kay (DE)

SUBJECT: Failure to accurately report disbursements; failure to request contributor information on solicitation request

25. MUR 4889

RESPONDENT: First National Bank (OK)

COMPLAINANT: Robert L. Barnett (OK)

SUBJECT: National bank contribution

26. MUR 4890

RESPONDENTS: (a) Abraham Senate 2000, Mark C. Larson, treasurer (MI)

    1. India Network Foundation, Inc. (OH)
    2. Mr. Sheela Murthy, Esq. (MD)

COMPLAINANT: John M. Miano (NJ)

SUBJECT: Corporate contributions; foreign national contributions

27. MUR 4891

RESPONDENTS: Barbara Alby for Congress Committee, Beler H. Watts, Jr., treasurer (CA)

COMPLAINANTS: Carolyn Machado, Machado & Company (DC)

SUBJECT: Failure to pay and report debt

28. MUR 4893

RESPONDENT: Scott Aviation Company (NY)

COMPLAINANTS: Louis P. Dudek, Vice President, District Three-IUE (NY)

SUBJECT: Failure to provide employee check off system for union personnel to contribute to PAC

29. MUR 4895

RESPONDENTS: (a) Bob Barr - Congress (1996 & 1998), Charles C. Black, treasurer (GA)

(b) Bob Barr - Congress (1994), Charles C. Black, treasurer (GA)

COMPLAINANT: George Anderson (GA)

SUBJECT: Failure to provide contributor information; failure to accurately report expenditures and reimbursements; other matters not within FEC jurisdiction

30. MUR 4902

RESPONDENTS: (a) Robert Ossenberg (IN)

(b) Quayle 2000, Inc., William R. Neale, treasurer (AZ)

COMPLAINANT: Phyllis Kim Doom (IN)

SUBJECT: Contribution in the name of another

 

Dismissed - Stale

1. MUR 4877

RESPONDENTS: (a) Clinton/Gore ’92 Committee, J. L. "Skip" Rutherford,

treasurer (DC)

(b) Clinton/Gore ’92 General Election Compliance Fund, J. L. "Skip" Rutherford, treasurer (DC)

(c) Lyn Utrecht, Esq. (DC)

(d) Laura Ryan Shachoy, Esq. (DC)

COMPLAINANTS: Mr. and Mrs. William Anderson

SUBJECT: Submitting false statements regarding material facts to the Federal Election Commission/non-qualified campaign expenditures

 

*There are four administrative stages to the FEC enforcement process:

1. Receipt of proper complaint 3. "Probable cause" stage

2. "Reason to believe" stage 4. Conciliation stage

It requires the votes of at least four of the six Commissioners to take any action. The FEC can close a case at any point after reviewing a complaint. If a violation is found and conciliation cannot be reached, then the FEC can institute a civil court action against a respondent.

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